The Etiquette of Eating
The Etiquette of Eating (part 1 of 2): Before and during the Meal
Description: Good manners taught by Prophet Muhammad.
“And I (God) created not the jinn and humankind except they should worship Me (Alone).” (Quran 51:56)
The religion of Islam is a holistic way of life. It is not separated into physical, emotional and spiritual areas; rather it teaches that all aspects of life combine to fulfil one purpose. What is that purpose and is it possible to understand the meaning of life? Yes it is! Islam makes it very clear that the purpose of life is to worship our Creator, the One True God. What gives meaning to our existence is understanding that all our actions, no matter how grand or how trivial, can be turned easily into worship. All actions performed in the daily course of life can be raised to the status of worship simply by remembering to praise God and seek His pleasure.
Islam makes remembrance easy by giving us guidelines. It teaches us in a gentle and moderate way that life is worship, and worship is the meaning of life. To this end, even eating has an etiquette that raises its status from the mundane to worship. Food plays a significant role in our everyday lives. We spend a lot of time, effort and money in shopping, cooking and eating so it makes sense to turn these worldly acts into worship worthy of reward. The sayings of Prophet Muhammad are filled with guidelines and recommendations that make eating a rewardable action.
Cleanliness is an important part of Islam. Not only should a Muslim purify himself before turning to God in prayer but they must pay attention to the cleanliness of their bodies and their surroundings at all times. Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, reminded us that our body has certain rights and one of those rights is that it should be maintained with cleanliness. Our bodies are a trust from God and living in filthy conditions causes disease and ill health. Therefore, before preparing food it is important to be sure that the food, the food preparation area and the hands that will touch the food are clean.
Muslims begin every task or action by mentioning the name of God, and eating is no exception. Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, said:
“When one of you eats, he should mention God’s name; if he forgets to mention God’s name at the beginning, he should say: “I begin with the name of God at the beginning and at the end of it (i.e. this meal).””
It is important to remember that Islam is a moderate way of life, we should not overindulge nor should we deprive ourselves of the delicious food that God has provided for us. The Islamic guidelines in relation to eating are taught to us predominantly in the sayings of Prophet Muhammad.
Eating with the right hand is one such saying and it is obligatory for Muslims unless there is an excuse such as illness or injury. The left hand is usually used to clean the body of filth and impurities while the right hand is used for eating, passing objects from one person to another and for shaking hands. Prophet Muhammad also advised his companions that Satan eats with his left hand and that the believers should disassociate themselves from anything that resembles Satan.
One of Prophet Muhammad’s companions, Omar ibn Abi Salamah also related a story about the etiquette of eating. He said,
“When I was a young boy in the care of the Messenger of God, my hand used to wander all over the platter (of food). The Messenger of God said to me, ‘O young boy, say Bismillah (I begin with the name of God), eat with your right hand, and eat from what is directly in front of you’.”
In situations where everyone is eating from common platters or serving themselves, taking the food that is directly in front of you is considered good manners. Reaching over others or searching for the most delicious pieces of food can make others uncomfortable or make you appear to be ungrateful or greedy. Part of the etiquette of eating includes eating in moderation and not overindulging no matter how appetizing the food is.
Prophet Muhammad reminded us that keeping the body light and healthy is better than being overweight, lazy and idle. He said,
“A man does not fill any vessel worse than his stomach. It is sufficient for the son of Adam to eat enough to keep him alive. But if he must do more than that, then one-third for his food, one-third for his drink and one-third for his air.”
There are many guidelines pertaining to the etiquette of eating. However inconsequential each action may seem, treating others with respect and thinking about how our actions will please or displease God turns eating into worship. It is from the manners of Prophet Muhammad to show respect towards guests by offering them the choicest food and delivering it in a timely manner. The guest is able to respond by hastening to taste and praise the food and by praying for and sending blessings upon the host. Prophet Muhammad’s companion , Anas, said that Sa’d ibn Ubada once brought some bread and oil to the Prophet who responded by saying
“May fasting people break their fast with you, may the righteous eat your food, and may the angels send blessings upon you.”
While it is a part of good manners to send blessings upon your host, Prophet Muhammad made it clear to his followers that the food God provides is full of the blessings of God. He taught us to be thankful and grateful. Prophet Muhammad advised us to pick up, dust off and eat any pieces of food that fall on the floor, to be certain not to miss any blessings or to leave the food for Satan.
Finally the etiquette of eating includes eating with a group rather than alone, sharing the bounties God provides, eating with three fingers, licking the remains of the food off your fingers, not reclining while eating, and refraining from spitting or blowing your nose whilst eating. It is also part of Islamic good manners to praise the food. It is wrong to criticise food, rather it is better to refrain from eating anything you do not like.
Paying attention to the etiquette of eating allows the believers to gather blessings and rewards with ease. God has provided us with delicious foods of every kind, meats, grains, fruits and vegetables and He said,
“And eat and drink, but waste not in extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not those who waste in extravagance.” (Quran 7:31)
At Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood & Ibn Majah.
Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim.
The Etiquette of Eating (part 2 of 2): After Eating
Description: Advice that leads to pleasing God.
Before a Muslim begins any task or action, he or she mentions the name of God. He says Bismillah (I begin with the name of God) to invoke God’s blessings on whatever he may be about to do, from the grand life changing moments to the mundane everyday tasks such as washing hands or eating. The first thing a Muslim does when he finishes eating is to praise and thank God. He says ‘Alhamdulillah’ (all praises and thanks are due to God) as an acknowledgement that God is the one who provides all our sustenance. Whether it be a little or a lot, we thank Him and we praise Him.
“And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from God” (Quran 11:6)
Food is an important part of everyday life, it sustains us and gives us energy, and a great deal of our time is spent acquiring, preparing, and eating food. God provides some people with a lot and others with very little. The reason for this is beyond our comprehension but we do know that the conditions we survive under are part of a test, not an indication of honour, or humiliation. God tests us to determine who is patient and grateful for the blessings He provides. A Muslim understands that he should be equally grateful for one morsel of food, or a banquet.
It is from the traditions of Prophet Muhammad to praise God and to make supplication after one has finished eating. Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, would say, “Praise be to God, good and blessed praise. What we have eaten now will not suffice us for perpetuity (rather Your graces are continuous upon us) nor will this meal suffice us such that it will be the last that we eat. We, O our Lord, cannot do without Your favor nor part with it” Alternatively, he would say “O God, bless it for us and feed us with better than it” Prophet Muhammad also told us that “God is pleased when one of His slaves eats something and praises Him for it, or drinks something and praises Him for it,” and that is what a true believer is aims for – to please God!
Cleanliness is part of faith
Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness. Prayers are not preformed unless the body is in a state of cleanliness, and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, contain advice pertaining to keeping both the body and mind clean. Islam is a holistic way of life and God said in the Quran that He “loves those who turn to Him in repentance and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” (Quran 2:222) To this end, it is important to clean oneself after eating by washing the hands, rinsing the mouth and if possible, cleaning the teeth.
Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, advised us all to wash our hands before and after eating regardless of whether we are in the state of ritual purity or not. It is acceptable to rinse with water, but the scholars of Islam have said it is preferable to use soap or a cleaning liquid. It is also recommended to rinse the mouth after eating. When Prophet Muhammad was in a place called Al Sahba he called for food but found only some barley mush, the Prophet and his companions ate the food after which they rinsed their mouths.
Islam attaches great importance to oral cleanliness and over 1400 years ago, Prophet Muhammad taught his followers the importance of cleaning their teeth. He recommended using a tooth stick called a miswak or siwak. It is a natural twig fortified with minerals that cleans the teeth, prevents the gums from bleeding, kills bacteria, and freshens the breath. Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, said, “Use siwak, for it purifies the mouth and pleases the Lord,’ and “Had it not been for fear of making things too difficult for my Ummah (nation), I would have commanded them to use the siwak before every prayer”.
Good advice is a mercy
Prophet Muhammad was sent to the world as a mercy, he came to complete God’s only religion and to teach us in practical ways how to please and worship God.
“He listens to what is best for you; he believes in God; has faith in the believers; and is a mercy to those of you who believe.” (Quran 9:61)
His advice about the etiquette of eating is an important part of his guidance. As we have seen, the etiquette of eating involves actions before, during, and after eating, and Prophet Muhammad also suggested ways for the believers to drink water. He advised that water should be drunk in three breaths rather than gulping the water in one mouthful, and he cautioned against breathing into the vessel because it contaminates the water with spittle. Correct etiquette is an important part of the religion of Islam.
Reading about the good morals and good manners that are inherent in the Islamic faith it is possible to see that Islam is a complete way of life, and every act that a Muslim does is a chance to please God and earn rewards. Even mundane acts like eating or drinking are viewed as opportunities to worship God, thus etiquette for eating and drinking has evolved from the words of God in the Quran and the traditions of his Prophet, Muhammad.
Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim