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    Some important points covered
    1. Three billion of our tax dollars is spent every year to support the occupation that is happening
    2.Why Muslims have a strong love for Jerusalem and Jesus
    3. Muslims and Christians are both being oppressed in Israel.

    Did you know that “Since the Israeli occupation began in 1967, Israel has confiscated thousands of acres belonging to Palestinian Christians and Muslims. In the Jerusalem and Bethlehem areas, Christians have been severely affected by Israel’s colonization policies.”

    4.Some extremist evangelicals are trying to force the Rapture
    to happen by supporting the oppression.

    5.How Islam saved the Jewish people
    and much more!!!

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    Inspiration from Muslim American Hero Muhammad Ali
    I had a great interview with my brother UFC fighter Mirsad Bektic the best part of it was when we both watched a clip from Muhammad Ali and Mersad was able to really relate and draw inspiration from what Muhammad Ali went through.

    Muhammad Ali at one point in his life got ahead of himself and started to think that his success was all due to his special abilities and amazing training camps until he learned a great lesson the hard way while Mersad was seeing himself at the same time going through the same struggle and learning a great lesson. I really think that this was a blessing for him and a sign from Allah because he had no idea I was going to play this clip for him to watch that totally related to him and what he was going through, Alhamdulillah!

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    People need to watch this before sharing any facts online

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    I went inside a Mosque in Florida look what I saw and who I met!

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    The Real Reason Hospitals Are So Expensive

    6 Problems With Modern Schooling System.
    Share your thoughts and comments below.

    Credit Next School

    More than 8,000 Innocent Muslim men, boys, children, were killed, women raped, just in the one town of Srebrenica in 1995 that’s not including other parts of the country where similar terrorism and atrocities were happening.

    Real Justice on the Day of Judgement

    “On the Day when We will gather the righteous to the Most Merciful, as guests. And herd the criminals into hell, like animals to water. They will have no power of intercession, except for someone who has an agreement with the Most Merciful. Quran 19:85-87

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    Christian and Muslim having lunch discussing Islam with Eddie Redzovic if you’re interested
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    Karate Champion Damir Bander shares an emotional story of the Death of a father and how that changed his life

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    This interview is in both languages.
    Meet Željko An Croatian Olympic Athlete who accepted Islam after trying to get his Muslim friend to go to the Nightclub to learn more about this amazing story watch this week’s episode!

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    Meet the Muslims from Europe watch them pray and here some wonderful stories all while talking and walking in Sarajevo

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    Islam in the Balkans with Muslim Fitness TAEKWONDO Bodybuilder Belmir Berberovic

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    The definitive biography of an American icon, from a New York Times best-selling author with unique access to Ali’s inner circle

    He was the wittiest, the prettiest, the strongest, the bravest, and, of course, the greatest (as he told us himself). Muhammad Ali was one of the twentieth century’s most fantastic figures and arguably the most famous man on the planet.

    But until now, he has never been the subject of a complete, unauthorized biography. Jonathan Eig, hailed by Ken Burns as one of America’s master storytellers, radically reshapes our understanding of the complicated man who was Ali. Eig had access to all the key people in Ali’s life, including his three surviving wives and his managers. He conducted more than 500 interviews and uncovered thousands of pages of previously unreleased FBI and Justice Department files, as well dozens of hours of newly discovered audiotaped interviews from the 1960s. Collectively, they tell Ali’s story like never before—the story of a man who was flawed and uncertain and brave beyond belief.

    “I am America,” he once declared. “I am the part you won’t recognize. But get used to me—black, confident, cocky; my name, not yours; my religion, not yours; my goals, my own. Get used to me.”

    He was born Cassius Clay in racially segregated Louisville, Kentucky, the son of a sign painter and a housekeeper. He went on to become a heavyweight boxer with a dazzling mix of power and speed, a warrior for racial pride, a comedian, a preacher, a poet, a draft resister, an actor, and a lover. Millions hated him when he changed his religion, changed his name, and refused to fight in the Vietnam War. He fought his way back, winning hearts, but at great cost. Like so many boxers, he stayed too long.

    Jonathan Eig’s Ali reveals Ali in the complexity he deserves, shedding important new light on his politics, religion, personal life, and neurological condition. Ali is a story about America, about race, about a brutal sport, and about a courageous man who shook up the world.

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    I’ll be taking a Cold water challenge on top of a mountain with a river on top of it in Bosnia.

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    Tap Water Toxicity + Your Guide to Water Filters

    Tap water toxicity - Dr. Axe

    Most of us don’t think too much about what’s in our water, despite the fact that we know that drinking water is key to our health. If it’s the public water supply, then it’s regulated, right? And even if we don’t have the best tap water, there’s always the bottled option.

    But as the water crisis in Flint, Mich., has proven, the water we’re being supplied isn’t always good for us. In fact, it can be downright dangerous to our health, and it can take years to turn things around. Of course, the regulations in place are also affected by industrial, military and pharmaceutical lobbies as well.

    And bottled water isn’t necessarily a better option. Aside from the fact that these plastic bottles are terrible for the environment, bottled water isn’t well regulated either.

    That’s why it’s important to know what is actually coming out of your kitchen faucet, and how tap water toxicity might be affecting you and your family.

    Tap Water Toxicity

    Tap water toxicity is the presence of toxins in our water supply — things like dangerous chemicals, compounds and metals. In fact, in 2009, a three-year study conducted by the Environmental Working Group found 316 chemicals in tap water throughout the country. (12) Of these, 202 of the chemicals weren’t regulated, while others don’t pass guideline levels.

    Guidelines are tricky, too. For instance, water utility companies who serve only a few thousand customers aren’t obligated to treat water to prevent lead contamination until after lead is discovered. A ground-breaking report from USA Today found that about 4 million Americans receive their water supply from these small utility companies annually. (3) Many of them miss the annual testing for harmful chemicals, meaning water goes for another 365 days — at least — without anyone knowing whether tap water toxicity is an issue or not.

    Bigger cities aren’t immune, though. As our nation’s infrastructure and pipes that are contaminated with things like bacteria, copper and lead aren’t replaced, it’s likely that we’ll see more Flint-like cases around the country.

    In fact, the American Society of Civil Engineers gave the country a “D” on its 2017 Drinking Water Infrastructure Report Card. (4) Among the reasons cited were the fact that, at the rate that utility companies are replacing outdated pipes (0.5 percent a year), it would take nearly 200 years to replace our aging system, well beyond the 50–75 years they’re built to withstand. They also pointed to the lack of funding and investment in the quality of American drinking water and its infrastructure.

    So, What’s In Your Tap Water?

    So what exactly are the toxins that you might find in your water supply?

    Atrazine is a major one. It’s the second-most widely used herbicide in the country. But it doesn’t stick to just crops; atrazine winds up in our ground and surface water, where it later winds up in our water supply, and often at levels much higher than what’s considered safe.

    Atrazine is known as an endocrine disruptor, or a chemical that after enough exposure, messes with our hormonal systems. Having just one hormone out of whack can cause serious developmental, neurological, reproductive and immune effects. The chemical has been linked to birth defects during pregnancy and raised levels of estrogen in women, which can increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. It’s also been found to feminize frogs, turning once-male frogs into females.

    Lead is a heavy metal that leaches through lead pipes and corroded infrastructure. It is toxic to almost every major organ in the body and acts as a poison in the body. What’s scary is that it’s absorbed by the bloodstream, affecting different parts of the body as it reaches them. (5) It’s especially dangerous for children, because their bodies are more susceptible to both absorbing and retaining the metal.

    Arsenic is another chemical that’s found in our tap water. In 2001, the EPA finally lowered the drinking water standard from 50 ppb to 10 ppb. Sadly, the agency had advocated for the limit to be 5 ppb, but water companies argued it would too expensive to implement. (6) Arsenic has been linked to cancers of the prostate, liver, kidneys, lungs, skin and nasal passages, among others. (7) While arsenic levels have decreased since the EPA’s standards changed, it’s still a concern in tap water.

    Why Bottled Water Isn’t Always a Better Option

    If tap water has so many issues, shouldn’t bottled water be the better option? Not so fast. Just like tap water, bottled water comes with risks, too.

    For starters, per gallon, bottled water costs about 2000 times more than tap water. (8) Worse, there’s not even a guarantee that you’re getting anything better than what’s coming out of your faucet.

    Bottled water manufacturers aren’t required to disclose the level of contaminants in their water, and in many cases, it’s simply tap water anyway. While the EPA oversees what comes out of the tap, it’s the Food and Drug Administration that’s responsible for bottled water. That usually means ensuring that what’s advertised on the label is what’s actually being sold. It’s up to states to regulate the actual water, though sometimes not even that happens.

    And you might be paying more money for no reason. The National Resources Defense Council estimates that at least 25 percent of bottled water is really just tap water and 22 percent of the brands they tested contained contaminant levels above state health limits. (9)

    Another reason to be wary of bottled water is the amount of chemicals that leach from the plastic bottles. Bisphenol A is one of them. BPAs, as they’re known, are found in plastics, including water bottles. They can be transmitted from the bottle to the water, even if the water wasn’t originally tainted with BPAs. These chemicals are another endocrine disruptor. In this case, they mimic estrogen, interfering with all hormone levels and genetic messages.

    BPAs are linked to reproductive health problems and breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. Diabetes and liver toxicity might also be linked to the chemical.

    So when does bottled water make sense? If you’re traveling somewhere with bad water quality or are on the go and the only other option is soda and another unhealthy drink then, by all means, grab a bottle of water.

    But be sure to check the label before drinking. If it says the water comes from a “municipal source,” “P.W.S.” (public water source) or from a “community water system,” it’s just plain ole tap water. Skip “purified water” or “drinking water,” too, and look for spring water.

    Guide to Water Filters

    If tap water can’t always be trusted and bottled water is often just really expensive tap water, what’s the safest option?

    Using an at-home filter is your best bet. This will remove toxins that might be lingering in the water supply without the exorbitant price of purchasing bottled water. There are six different kinds of water filters and eight different filtering methods.

    There are several different types of water filters: a pitcher, a faucet-mount, a faucet-integration, a counter-top filter, an under-sink filter or a whole-house water filter. You should choose the option that works best with your family’s lifestyle and that will be easiest to use consistently.

    There are also a variety of filtering methods to choose from, including carbon-activated, ceramic, ion exchange, mechanical filters, ozone, reverse osmosis, UV light and water softeners. Check out the differences in filtering methods below:

    Carbon/Activated Carbon Filters: Activated carbon binds with many contaminants and removes them from water. It can remove asbestos, chlorine, lead, mercury and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). But carbon filters cannot remove arsenic, fluoride, nitrate or percholate. Their effectiveness varies widely by manufacturer — some may only remove chlorine.

    Ceramic Filters: Ceramic filters work like spaghetti strainers, blocking sediment and large particles. They do not remove chemicals.

    Deionization/ Ion Exchange Filters: An ion exchange filter can remove heavy metals, minerals and charged ions. It cannot remove chlorine byproducts, microorganisms or volatile organic chemicals (VOCs).

    Mechanical Filters: These strainers can remove large particles from water but do not remove chemicals.

    Ozone Filters: Ozone can kill bacteria and microorganisms, but does not remove chemicals.

    Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis filters use a semi-permeable membrane that can trap any molecule bigger than water. They are more effective than carbon filters since they are able to remove fluoride. A reverse osmosis filter is my personal recommendation for the kind of water filter that is best.

    UV Light: Ultraviolet light kills bacteria and microorganisms but does not remove chemicals.

    Water Softeners: These ion exchange filters remove barium, calcium, magnesium and radium. They do not remove other contaminants. They also add sodium to the water.

    Tap water toxicity is pretty scary. We don’t want to imagine that something we rely on so heavily has the potential to adversely affect our health. Unfortunately, our system has a way to go until we can confidently drink tap water without fear of toxicity. Until then, using a filter is your best bet.


    Tap Water Toxicity + Your Guide to Water Filters

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    Meet Maryam a women who hated Muslims and Islam but after reading a book about Islam her heart opened and she started doing more and more research and finally made the decision to accept Islam but soon after was taken into the Jungle by her family and almost shot, this is her story!

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    Guard your tongue!

    guard your tongue


    Guarding the Tongue revisited 

    Our tongues are weapons of mass destruction: They destroy so many things!  They destroy our good deeds, they destroy our community, they destroy our brotherhood, they destroy our family relationships, they destroy peoples’ reputations, they destroy peoples’ honor, dignity, self-respect.  Our tongues destroy people.   

    And the First Person we destroy with our tongues is Ourselves!

    **  Qaalallahu Ta A’la, fi Suratul Infitar, 80:12;

    وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَـفِظِينَ- كِرَاماً كَـتِبِينَ- يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

    But verily, over you are appointed angels to watch over you.  Kind and honourable, writing down your deeds.  They know all that you do.

    **  Qaalallahu Ta A’la, fi Suratul Qaf (50:18)

    مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

    Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it)

    وَقَالَ قَرِينُهُ هَـذَا مَا لَدَىَّ عَتِيدٌ

    And his companion (angel) will say: “Here is (his record) ready with me!”

    **  Qalla lahu Ta-ala, fi Suratul Al Ahzab (The Confederates) 33:70-71

    يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ وَقُولُواْ قَوْلاً سَدِيداً –

    33:70.   O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and speak (always) the truth (a straight forward word, a right word, a just word.)

    The Prophet (PBUH) would often begin his khutbahs by reciting this ayah.  And anytime the Prophet (PBUH) would say something, we should pay attention to it, because it’s important.

    In this ayat, Allah is warning us to fear Him as He should be feared and then He tells us to always speak a straight forward word.

    Brothers and Sisters, we need to be mindful of the things that come out of our mouths because we are going to be questioned about these things.

    **  Imam Muslim has related in his Sahih, an Abu Hurairah, (radiallahu anhu) Qal, Qalla Rasullulah (pbuh), “Man kaana yuminu billah wal yawmil Aakhir, fal yaqul khairan, aw liyassmut.”

    Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) reported:  The Prophet (pbuh) said, “He who believes in Allah and the Last Day must either speak good or remain silent.”  RS V2, p.1123, #1511.

    ** Quote:  From Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah:  “Every gulp of air, that goes out in a cause other than the cause of Allah (SWT) will turn to sorrow and regret on the Day of Judgement.”

    It’s easy to open our mouths and say whatever comes to mind.  But how hard is it for us to keep our mouths shut?  To keep our bad words to ourselves?

    We use our tongues to say bad words.  We use our tongues to put people down.  We use our tongues to backbite people, to dis-honor them.

    We use our tongues to remind people of the favors that we’ve done for them.  We use our tongues to undo the good that we may have done.

    How many times have we opened our mouths and let something out, and then wished we could take it back, wish we could undo the harm that we had done with our tongues.

    It only takes a few seconds to undo with our tongues what may have taken years to build up.

    Once something comes out, it can’t be undone.  At best all we can do is to try to do some damage control.  At best all we can do is apologize, but we can’t undo it.

    ** At-Tirmidhi has recorded,

    عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الثَّقَفِيِّ، قَالَ

    قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ حَدِّثْنِي بِأَمْرٍ أَعْتَصِمُ بِهِ

    I said: “O Messenger of Allah! Inform me about a matter that I may hold fast to

    قَالَ ‏”‏ قُلْ رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقِمْ

    He said: ‘Say: My Lord is Allah, then be steadfast

    قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا أَخْوَفُ مَا تَخَافُ عَلَىَّ

    I said: “O Messenger of Allah! What do you fear most for me?”

    فَأَخَذَ بِلِسَانِ نَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏”‏ هَذَا

    So he took hold of his tongue and said: ‘This.’”

    Brothers and sisters, our tongues our destroyers!  They destroy our good deeds, our good works.

    How many of us can think back to something that we may have said that caused harm.  And years later when we think about it, we still feel bad about it, we still feel the regret, wishing we could take back our words?  The pain stays, the memories stay fresh.  The effects of our words linger on, years after they come out of our mouths.

    **  It is reported that a man saw Ibn Abbas (raa) holding the tip of his tongue saying:

    “Woe to you, say what is good and you will reap gain, and be silent from speaking evil and you will be safe.”

    The man asked him, ‘O Ibn Abbas, what is the matter that I see you holding the tip of your tongue saying such and such?’

    He replied; “It has reached me that the servant of Allah will not be as angry at anything on the Day of Resurrection, as he will be at his tongue.”

    **  Umar ibn Khattab (ra) once entered upon Abu Bakr (ra) and found him pulling at his tongue.  He said, “Oh, what are you doing?”

    Abu Bakr replied, “It is this (his speech) that has brought me so much trouble.”

    ** Al Hasan al Basri (rh) said; ‘The intelligent person’s tongue is behind his heart; when he wants to speak, he first thinks.  If his words will be in his favor, he says them, and if they will be against him, he does not speak.

    And the ignorant person’s heart is behind his tongue; when he merely thinks of saying something, he says it, whether it is for him, or against him.

    Allah gave us two gates, checks, locks…our lips and our teeth (props to Bro. Hamza).  He has given us a chance to stop ourselves before we open our mouths to let something out.  How many of us could use a third lock?

    **  Imam Ash-Shaafi’ee (rh) said, “Be aware of your tongue, it’s dangerous!  It’s like a snake, and sooo many people have been killed by their tongues.”

    Brothers and sisters, guarding our tongues is a hard thing to do, and it’s part of our test.

    **  Imam Bukhari has recorded,

    عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ

    مَنْ يَضْمَنْ لِي مَا بَيْنَ لَحْيَيْهِ وَمَا بَيْنَ رِجْلَيْهِ أَضْمَنْ لَهُ الْجَنَّةَ

    Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs (i.e. his tongue and his private parts), I guarantee Paradise for him.”

    Without a doubt, it’s a hard thing to do, and so we should ask Allah, over and over again to help us with this fitnah.  And with Allah lies all strength and success.

    **  At-Tirmidhi has related; Abu Hurairah

    عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ

    سُئِلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ أَكْثَرِ مَا يُدْخِلُ النَّاسَ الْجَنَّةَ

    Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah was asked about that for which people are admitted into Paradise the most

    فَقَالَ ‏”‏ تَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَحُسْنُ الْخُلُقِ

    so he said:  “Taqwa of Allah, and good character

    وَسُئِلَ عَنْ أَكْثَرِ مَا يُدْخِلُ النَّاسَ النَّارَ

    And he was asked about that for which people are admitted into the Fire the most,

    الْفَمُ وَالْفَرْج

    and he said: ” The mouth and the private parts.”

    Brothers and sisters, be mindful of the things that come out of your mouths because the things you say today, will be waiting for you on Yawmul Qiyamma.  And when you stand before Allah, you will have to answer for these words.  And this is why the Prophet (pbuh) advised us by saying that  he who keeps silent, keeps safe.

    أَقُولُ قَوْلِي هذَا وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ لِي وَلَكُم

    Alhumdulillahi Rabbil Alamin, was salaatu wa salaamu ala Muhammad, wa ali alihi, wa ashabihi, ajamiin, amabaad.

    My dear and respected brothers and sisters in Islam, we need to work hard to guard our tongues because by guarding our tongues, we are helping to ward off the Hellfire from us.

    **  Imam Bukhari has related;

    عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ

    وَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ مِنْ سَخَطِ اللَّهِ لاَ يُلْقِي لَهَا بَالاً يَهْوِي بِهَا فِي جَهَنَّمَ

    a slave (of Allah) may utter a word (carelessly) which displeases Allah without thinking of its gravity and because of that he will be thrown into the Hell-Fire.

    Qalla lahu ta ala, fi Suratul Hujurat (the Dwellings) 49:12

    وَلاَ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً    أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ     وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

    “And do not backbite one another.  Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?  You would hate it (so hate backbiting).  And fear Allah.  Verily, Allah is the One who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.”

    **  Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, have both related,

    عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ

    قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَىُّ الإِسْلاَمِ أَفْضَلُ

    مَنْ سَلِمَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ

    Narrated Abu Musa:  Some people asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), “Whose Islam is the best? i.e. (Who is a very good Muslim)?” He replied, “One who avoids harming the Muslims with his tongue and hands.”

    **  Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

    «كُلُّ الْمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ حَرَامٌ مَالُهُ وَعِرْضُهُ وَدَمُهُ، حَسْبُ امْرِىءٍ مِنَ الشَّرِّ أَنْ يَحْقِرَ أَخَاهُ الْمُسْلِم»

    (All of the Muslim is sacred to the Muslim, his wealth, honor and his blood. It is evil enough for someone to belittle his Muslim brother.)

    Brothers and Sisters, don’t backbite one another.  Don’t talk about your brothers and sisters, unless it’s something good.

    And the definition of backbiting has been explained in a Hadith collected by Abu Dawud that Abu Hurayrah said, “It was asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What is backbiting’ He said,

    «ذِكْرُكَ أَخَاكَ بِمَا يَكْرَه»

    (Mentioning about your brother in a manner that he dislikes.) He was asked, `What if my brother was as I mentioned’ He said,

    «إِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ مَا تَقُولُ فَقَدِ اغْتَبْتَهُ،      وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ مَا تَقُولُ فَقَدْ بَهَتَّه»

    (If he was as you mentioned, you will have committed backbiting.    But if he was not as you say about him, you will have falsely accused him (slandered him.)”

    Backbiting was sternly warned against, and this is why Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed compared it to eating the flesh of a dead human being,

    Brothers and sisters in Islam, be careful of what comes out of our mouths!

    ** Quote:  From Amr ibn Al-As (ra) :  Words are like medicine, little is enough and too much destroys you.

    Brothers and sisters, guard your tongues, and measure your words.  Think before we open our mouths and don’t backbite one another.  And I know that it’s a hard thing to resist, but bite your tongues if you have to, because on Yawmul Qiyamma, you’ll be wishing that you had.

    **  And finally, At Tirmidhi has related from Abu Said al Khudri (radiallahu anhu) Qal:  Qalla Rasullulah (pbuh)

    إِذَا أَصْبَحَ ابْنُ آدَمَ فَإِنَّ الأَعْضَاءَ كُلَّهَا تُكَفِّرُ اللِّسَانَ

    فَتَقُولُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ فِينَا فَإِنَّمَا نَحْنُ بِكَ

    فَإِنِ اسْتَقَمْتَ اسْتَقَمْنَا

    وَإِنِ اعْوَجَجْتَ اعْوَجَجْنَا

    Abu Said Al Khudri said:  The Prophet (pbuh) said, “When the son of Adam gets up in the morning, all the limbs humble themselves before the tongue and say: ‘Fear Allah for our sakebecause we are with you: (i.e., we will be rewarded or punished as a result of what you do) if you are straight, we will be straight; and if you are crooked, we will be crooked.”

    Subhanallah.  Brothers and sisters, think about this for a moment.  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is telling us that our own bodies are afraid for us for what our tongues may do.  They warn our tongues to fear Allah, and they seek refuge from the evil that they may send forward.

    So my dear and respected brothers and sisters in Islam, I encourage us all to guard our tongues, and fear the day when we will be called to account for the things that we have said.

    I ask Allah to help us to benefit from what we have heard here today.

    And to help us to guard our tongues.

    And I ask Allah to turn to us with Forgiveness and Mercy on the day that we meet Him, and to exchange our places in Hellfire, for places in Jannah.


    By Khalil Moya

    1. Introduction

    Aim: The aim of this research was to examine scientific oral health benefits, disadvantages and future recommendations in fields of application of chewing stick (Miswak), by reviewing available literature.

    Methods: Working data were collected by researching on available literature found on Google scholar’s database. Search was limited to publications in the English language. Keywords used, were: Miswak, oral health, natural toothbrush, miswak vs. Toothbrush, Salvadora Persica, etc.

    *Additionally, three authentic religious scriptures, and a link from „eBay“ were used as a working data.

      1. Definition

    Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of various trees and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years.14 Miswak in Arabic language means “tooth cleaning stick”.1 Synonyms for it are; “misswak,” “miswaki,” “meswak,” “mswaki,” “sewak,” “siwak,” and “siwaki”. It represents a pencil-shaped stick of certain plants, 15-20 cm long with a diameter of 1-1.5 cm, which are chewed on one end till they are formed into a brush (Fig.1).1,20 Miswak is a popular oral hygiene aid used in Pakistan, India, and most of the Arabian countries, as well as certain African countries. It is mostly made of Arak (Salvadora Persica), a tree also known as “toothbrush tree”.(Fig.2)4,29

                                                                              Fig.1. Pencil – shaped stick made out of Salvadora Persica tree 20

                                                      Fig.2. Salvadora persica – “toothbrush tree” 29

      1. Historical background of Miswak

    Miswak was used by the Babylonians 7000 years ago followed by the Greek, Romans, Jews, Egyptians and Islamic empires.2 Its usage is also a pre-Islamic custom which ancient Arabs used in order to get their teeth white and shiny, as white and shiny teeth were associated with beauty and attractiveness.1,14 Japanese called it “Koyoji”, while the Romans used mastic to rub their teeth and as a toothpick.4

      1. Religious background of Miswak

    Persistence of Miswak nowadays is mainly of a religious character and is mostly used in Muslim countries. Islam teaches the importance of cleanliness of the body, and basic oral hygiene is incorporated as a very significant religious practice. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammed (SAW), in several narrations in authentic religious scriptures emphasizes the importance of miswak.

    1. “Miswak cleanses the mouth and pleases the Lord” 8,
    2. “ Were it not for the fact that I did not want to make things too hard for my ummah* (the whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion), I would have commanded them to use the miswak at every time of prayer” 8,9
    3. Were it not for the fact that I did not want to make things too hard for my ummah* (the whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion), I would have commanded them to use the miswak at every time of making wudoo* (ritual washing to be performed in preparation for prayer and worship)” 8,9
    4. Aa’ishah, the wife of the Prophet (SAW) said: When he entered his house, the first thing he would do was to use the miswak” 9
    5. Hudayfahibn al-Yamaan, reported that when the Prophet (SAW) got up during the night, he would clean his mouth thoroughly with the miswak” 10
    1. Chemical composition of Miswak (SalvadoraPersica)

    The beneficial effects of Miswak in respect of oral hygiene and dental health are partly due to its mechanical action and partly due to pharmacological actions.1 Al-Lafi and Ababneh in 1995 reported that the use of miswak inhibits the formation of dental plaque chemically and also exerts antimicrobial effect against many microorganisms.4 Many researchers have studied constituents of miswak and found it to contain more than ten different natural chemical compounds considered essential for good oral and dental hygiene. They are, silica, tannic acid, resins, alkaloids (salvadorine), volatile oils (simgrins), sulfur, vitamin C, sodium bicarbonate, chlorides, calcium, benzylisothoicyanate.4 A study by Chawlareported that some types of chewing sticks such as Neem (Azadirachtaindica), Salvadorapersica and Acacc/aarabica contain a reasonable amount of fluoride.7

      1. The Effects of Different Components
    • The fresh sap released during the chewing of the stick has anticariogenic effect and it  acts like a topical fluoride whose effectiveness depends on its ability to wet the tooth enamel and reach caries susceptible sites.1
    • Salvadora persica Miswak contains nearly 1.0 μg/g of total fluoride and was found to release significant amounts of calcium and phosphorus.4
    • Silica removes stains due its abrasive nature thus promoting whiteness of the teeth.1
    • Tannins (Tannic acid) acts as an astringent that precipitates albumin and it shows anti-tumor effects on animals in vitro.1 They reduce plaque and gingivitis by inhibiting the action of glucosyltransferase.It also acts antimycotic when applied to base of the denture, showing a decrease in Candida Albicans colonies.1
    • Resins are hard, transparent, complex mixtures of resin acids, resin alcohols, phenols, esters and chemically inert compounds, which form a layer over the enamel and protect it from caries.1,2,3,4
    • Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic compounds. The alkaloid present in Salvadora persica is Salvadorine which has a bactericidal effect and stimulatory action on the gingiva.(1)
    • Characteristic aroma and mildly bitter taste comes from essential (volatile) oils, which stimulate the flow of saliva.1,2,3,4
    • High Sulfur compounds (4.73%) in Miswak have bactericidal effects.1,4
    • Vitamin C assists in repairing and healing of the tissues.1,2,3,4
    • Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) NaHCOB works as a dentifrice due to its mild abrasive properties, while having a mild germicidal action.1,2,4
    • High concentration of chloride helps in removing stains from the teeth by inhibiting calculus formation.1,2,3,4
    • Calcium saturation promotes remineralization of tooth enamel.1,2,3,4
    • Benzylisothiocyanate (BIT) is a chemo-preventive agent which prevents carcinogenic and other genotoxic compounds from reaching or reacting with the target sites on the treated tissue.1 Al Dosari et al studied the effect of BIT on epithelial changes induced by trauma and Dimethylbenzanthracin (DMBA) in the hamster tongue. Results showed that BIT reduced the development of neoplastic changes.1 Al-Bagieh et al reported that BIT inhibits the growth and acid production of streptococcus mutans. It was also reported that BIT, at a concentration of 133.3 μg/m,l has a virucidal activity against HSV-1.1 BIT also exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria.1,4
    • Concentrated liquor (Decoction) of S. persica has been used by alternative medical practitioners for the treatment of spleenomegaly, rheumatism, tumors, and renal stones in humans. It was also shown to possess hypoglycemic effects and an incremented oral-glucose tolerance in normal rats and to enhance plasma immunoreactive insulin level.1,9
    • Extracts from the root and stems of Salvadore Persica were successfully used in treatment of oral infections in humans.1,9
    • Almas, 2001; Lafi and Ababneh, 1995, showed the ability of aqueous and ethanol extracts of S. Persicain removing the smear layer from dentin surfaces and occlude dentine tubules.1,9
    1. Pharmacological properties
    1. Antimicrobial properties

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms.17 Studies have shown that S. Persica contains substances which possess plaque inhibiting and antibacterial properties against several types of frequently found cariogenic bacteria in oral cavity.1,4

    Almas in (1999) showed that S. Persica extracts had antimicrobial effects on Streptoccusmutans and E. feacalis, potentially due to interaction with bacteria which prevents their attachment to the tooth surface.4 AlLafi and Ababneh (1995) demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects of S. Persica, on the growth of Streptoccus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus.13 In according to its high sulfate content, Al Baqieh et al. (1994) showed that the aqueous extract of S. Persica had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Candida albicans.4 Darout et al. (2000; 2002) had identified several anionic antimicrobial components which had potent promoter effects on salivary peroxidase thiocyonate and hydrogen peroxidase antimicrobial systems. In randomized study of 15 Saudi Arabian volunteers, Al-Otaibi et al. (2004) showed that the level of A. Actynomicetemcomitans in subgingival plaque was significantly more reduced by using miswak than toothbrush.16 Pourselami et al. (2007) based on their remarkable antimicrobial effects experimental results, recommended the use of S. Persica extract in mouthrinses and toothpastes.1 Sofrata et al. (2008) showed strong antibacterial effects against oral microorganisms associated with periodontitis and dental caries.1 Farooqi and Srivastava (1968) showed the BIT component of S. Persica as a bacterial growth inhibitor.20 Al-Bayati and Sulaiman (2008) showed the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of S. Persica against seven isolated oral pathogens (S.aureusStreptococcus mutansStreptococcus pyogenesE. faecalisLactobacillus acidophilusPseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans).1

    1. Release of calcium and chloride – Gazi et al reported that Miswak produced significant  changes on the composition of mixed saliva by increasing levels of calcium and chloride.1
    1. Analgesic effect – Mansour et al. found that decotion of Miswak had analgesic effect against thermal stimuli when injected to mice. Ra’ed I. Al Sadhan et al. have stated that if analgesic effect of Miswak gets confirmed in clinical dental pain, usage of Miswak would be of practical value.1
    2. Other pharmacological properties – Beside the astringent and detergent effect, it has been reported that Miswak possess anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activities.1,2,
    1. Effects on dental plaque, gingival health and periodontal status

    Gazi et. al reported significantly reduced dental plaque and gingivitis when Miswak was used five times a day comparing to commercial toothbrush.4 Another study suggested that the frequent use of the Miswak was associated with a reduced need for periodontal care among Saudi Arabian adults.1 Danielson et al. proved a reduction of plaque on frontal teeth and recommended Miswak as a tool for oral hygiene.1 Danielseh et al (1989) in a study conducted among of two groups of students in Kenya reported that no additional method was required to remove dental plaque in the group that used toothpaste in combination with chewing sticks.21 In a randomized crossover study among 15 Saudi Arabian male volunteers, Al-Otaibi et al. (2003) found that miswak use significantly reduced plaque and gingival indices and was more effective than toothbrushing when preceded by professional instruction regarding its correct application.4  Rinsing with a slurry of toothpaste containing S. Persica Miswak has been shown to reduce gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing.4 Elwin-Lewis et al (1980) found low levels of tooth loss in adults in countries where Miswak is widely used.3 Low periodontal treatment needs among Saudi Arabian adults who used Miswak was reported by Al-Khateeb et al (1991) and Guille (1992). Darout IA et al. conducted a study on 213 males, aged 20 to 65 years, to evaluate the periodontal status of miswak and toothbrush users. They reported that periodontal status of miswak users in Sudanese population is better than that of toothbrush.19

      1. Anticariogenic effects and comparative oral health status of Miswak and Toothbrush users

    Bristle toothbrush, which is the most common and widely used aid for oral hygiene, was first time patented in America in 1887 and has since then undergone little change.2 The American Dental Association has described the range of dimensions of acceptable brushes: a brushing surface 1 to 1.25 inches (25.4 to 31.8mm long) and 5/10 to 3/8 inch (7.9 to 9.8 mm) wide, 2 to 4 rows of bristles, and 5 to 12 tufts per row.2 The diameter of commonly used bristles ranges from 0.0071 inches (0.2 mm) for soft brushes to 0.012 inches (0.3 mm) for medium brushes and 0.014 inches (0.4 mm) for hard brushes.2 These tooth brushes are usually used with dentifrices which aid in cleaning and polishing the tooth surfaces.2

    Most of the studies discussing the efficacy of miswak and modern tooth brush have shown a superior or comparable effect of miswak over the use of tooth brushes.1,2,3,4

    Many epidemiological studies revealed that S. persica miswak had strong anti-decay effects.4 Emslie (1966) conducted a survey in Sudan in which he reported a lower caries prevalence among miswak users than among tootbrush users.1 Baghdady and Ghose, (1979)Sathananthan et al., (1996) ;  Younes and El-Angbawi, (1982) found lower caries incidence among school children using Miswak.23 Elvin – Lewis et al (1980); Olsson (1978) Despite the carbohydrate – rich diet traditionally consumed in Ghana, they proved that Miswak reduced dental caries more effectively than commercial tootbrushes.1 Decreased rate of caries and Miswak users in comparison to non-users was reported  in a cross-sectional  pilot study among adults in West Africa (Norton and Addy, 1989).4,24 Hattab (1997) showed that chewing effects and pungent taste of Miswak increased saliva secretion and thereby increased its buffering capacity.25 Sofrata et al (2007) in an in vivo study, showed that rinsing with S. Persica extract raised the plaques pH by stimulating parotid gland secretion, therefore directly contributing in prevention of dental caries.1,2,3,4 Petersen and Mzee (1998) found that the caries prevalence rate, in Zanzibar, was significantly lower in rural areas, where Miswak was used, than in urban areas.26 Darmani et al (2006) found that  the aqueous extract of Miswak was able to significantly inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria.27 Carl and Zambon (1993) reported that dental caries was relatively rare among Kenyan primary school children who were using only miswak as an oral hygiene tool.28

    1. Disadvantages of Miswak

    Although S. persica miswak is considered to be an essential aid in maintaining oral hygiene, certain disadvantages are associated with its use.4 Its bristles lie in the long axis of the stick, whereas those of a toothbrush are placed perpendicular to the handle. Thus, it is difficult to reach the lingual surfaces of the dentition with a miswak.4 Hollist (1981) and Khoory (1983) reported another disadvantage related to habitual use of Miswak for a prolonged period.1,4 They showed that chewing sticks users may excessively scrub the anterior teeth, which are located in the area of primary concern, while ignoring the posterior teeth.1,4 In Tanzania a relatively high prevalence of gingival recession has been reported among adults using miswak, however the severity of the recession was significantly more pronounced in the miswak users than in the toothbrush users.3 These disadvantages may be overcome with a dentist’s provision of precise instructions on the acceptable methods and duration of miswak use.

    1. Current therapeutic applications of Miswak
    1. Toothpaste – Some of the known commercial toothpaste produced from Salvadorapersica plant are: Sarkan toothpaste®, UK, Quali-Meswak tooth- paste®, Switzerland, Epident toothpaste®, Egypt, SiwakF®toothpaste, Indonesia. Fluoroswak,®Miswak,® Pakistan. DentacareMiswak Plus,® Saudi Arabia.1
    2. Mouthwashes – Mostafa et al found a reduction in plaque formation by Miswak-based mouthwash. But no such preparation presently exists in the market.1
    3. Endodontic irrigation solution – Abo Al Samh, et al evaluated, in vitro, the effect of different concentrations of Miswak extract on L929 cell-line in tissue culture and compared the results with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI). They found a concentration-dependent morphological change of L929 cell-line when exposed to Miswak extract and NaOCI. They suspect recovery of the cells after a 4-hour exposure period to different Miswak extract concentrations.1
    1. Recommendations for application in preventive dentistry

    Based on all of the above mentioned, evidentially scientifically proven facts, regarding the oral health benefits of the Miswak, most authors, and myself, recommend that it should be more frequent, and globally used in preventive dentistry. Not only that Miswak contains an incredible amount of significantly useful compounds in its composition, but it also shows very little or no disadvantages, if used properly and with the right technique. Strong evidence from the available descriptive and experimental studies support the view that Salvadora persica (Miswak) can be a potent oral hygiene tool, not only due to its excellent mechanical plaque-removing efficiency but for its broad range of biological properties. Not to mention that is very economic,(a Miswak stick can be purchased in under 0.5$), convenient and practical in every day, and everyplace use. It does not need expertise or any extra resources to manufacture it. World Health Organization has recommended and encouraged the use of these sticks as a tool for oral hygiene in areas where their use is effective and customary.31 This recommendation is also consistent with the principles of the Primary Health Care Approach that focus on prevention, community participation, and the use of appropriate technology.31 Chewing sticks may play a role in the promotion of oral hygiene, and further evaluation of their effectiveness is warranted, as stated in the World Health Organization (WHO) Consensus Report on Oral Hygiene.1  To obtain optimum oral health and hygiene, miswak (Salvadora persica) can be used alone or as an adjunct to a traditional toothbrush.31 Hence, miswak use should be encouraged and promoted based on scientific knowledge of its numerous therapeutic effects on oral health, easy availability, popularity, and low cost. However, achieving the optimum effects of miswak (Salvadora persica) depends on its regular use with proper, and effective techniques.31

    1. How to use Miswak

    Miswak is available in various diameters and lengths and can be further adjusted and modified by cutting it into suitable lengths by the user.1 Recommended length for the convenience of grip and ease of manipulation in a confined space is 20 cm for adults and 15 cm for children, with a diameter of about 1cm.1,41 An excessively long stick may result in a traumatic injury, from the intra-oral end. This usually happens as a result of carrying out oral hygiene whilst operating other domestic duties, therefore not paying enough attention to technique of brushing.1

    Chewing stick should be freshly cut so that it is supple, easily chewed, and still rich in active constituents.1 The color of the root should be whitish-brown, while a dark brown color indicates that the Miswak is no longer fresh.4 It is important to make sure that the Miswak is not very dry, which can lead to damaging of the gums and other oral tissues.1,4,3 If a stick is dry, the end for chewing should initially be soaked in fresh water for 24 hours. It should be noted that soaking for unduly long periods causes loss of active constituents and diminishes the therapeutic properties, although the mechanical effects on the teeth can still be expected to occur.1 The end of a chewing stick should be washed with water prior to its usage. It is the chewed repeatedly until the fibers become soft and stand out like the bristles of a toothbrush.1 These fibers should be clipped every 24 hours and should be kept in a moist place when not in use.1

    The techniques employed for removing plaque mechanically are similar with the toothbrush and the chewing stick, e.g., vertical and horizontal brushing. However, these techniques are less important than people’s attitudes, knowledge and manual dexterity.1

    There are two basic holds, Pen-grip (three finger grip) or palm-grip (five finger grip). In each case the aim is to ensure:
    a)  Firm but controlled movement of the brush end of the Miswak within the oral cavity.

    b)  That every area of the mouth is reached with relative ease and convenience.1

    The cleaning movement should always be directed away from the gingival margin of the teeth on both the buccal and lingual surfaces. An anterior to posterior scrubbing movement is used on the occlusal surfaces. Care should be taken to avoid damaging the soft tissues of the mouth.1

    The tongue is commonly cleaned by users of chewing sticks, the objective being to control bad breath and remove white coating that develops on the dorsum of the tongue. This surface is usually cleaned by means of the brush end of the chewing stick, but better results are obtained by breaking the stick into a V-shape and scraping the resulting blade several times across the tongue.1

      1. When to use Miswak

    Ideally, Miswak should be used before meals to remove the bacteria that convert sugar into acid, or immediately after meals.1 However, the latter is impractical, since the fall in pH and the associated damage occur within a few minutes, and 20 minutes later the saliva performs the buffering action itself. In general, it is recommended to use Miswak five times a day.1

    The use of the Miswak alone can be satisfying if enough time is devoted to its application during the period it is kept in the mouth. A common fault is the habit of keeping it in the mouth while domestic duties are carried on, with the complete neglect of the stick.1 A definite time should be set aside for the use of the chewing stick; five minutes of complete devotion to this function is deemed sufficient to ensure good cleansing. The resulting smooth feel of the teeth with the tongue gives a critical measure of the efficiency and effectiveness of the chewing stick.1

    1. Conclusion

    This present review clearly highlights the many beneficial effects of Salvadora persica (Miswak) on oral disease prevention and health promotion. The majority of authors have concluded a superior, or at least comparable effect of Miswak over the use of toothbrushes, thus recommending it as a future indispensable oral hygiene tool.

    1. 10.Literature
    1. Miswak (chewing Stick): A Cultural And Scientific Heritage – Ra’ed I. Al Sadhan, BDS , Khalid Almas, BDS, MSC, DDPH.RCS, FRACDS, FDS RCSED, FICD College of Dentistry, King Saud University,P.O. Box 60169, Riyadh 11545, K.S.A. Saudi Dental Journal 1999/Volume 11 Number 2; 80-88
    2. Miswak: A Periodontist’s Perspective – ParveenDahiyam, Reet Kamal, R.P. Luthra, Rahuh Mishra and GuaravSaini. Journal of Ayuverda and Integrative Medicine – Oct-Dec 2012
    3. Miswak in oral cavity – An update – AkhilanandChaurasia, RanjitPatil and Amit Nagar. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research – May –Aug 2013
    4. A review on Miswak (Salvadorapersica) and its effect on various aspects of oral health – Hassan SulimanHalawany, Department of Periodontics and Community dentistry, Dental Caries Research Chair, College of Kind Saud Universitiy, Saudi Arabia – The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 24, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 63-69
    5. Microbiology of Dental Decay and Periodontal Disease – Walter J. Loesche, Medical Microbiology, 4th edition.
    6. Case Report – The Use of Miswak as Toothbrush for Orthodontic Patient – Khoirulzariah Ismail, Case reports in Dentistry – Craniofacial and Biomaterial Sciences Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, UniversitiSains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    7. Study of the Effects of Natural Toothbrush (Salvadorapersica) in Prevention of Dental Caries and Plaque index.FatemehEzoddini-Ardakani et al. Scientific Research, Health, Vol.4 No.9
    8. The Natural Toothbrush “Miswak” and The Oral Health – Ismail A Darout, International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research 2014
    9. Saheeh Al – Bukhari 2/274, 2/299, 1/98*
    10. Saheeh Muslim 1/151, 1/220*
    11. Saheeh Ahmad 6/47*
    12. www.ebay.com/itm/10-packs-Sewak-Miswak-Islam-Falah-Siwak-Meswak-Miswaak-Arak-Natural-Toothbrush-/181953200322?hash=item2a5d4180c2:g:CR8AAOSwNnRYg8Nw*
    13. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria – Al Lafi T
    1. A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak ( Salvadora Persica) on Oral Health – Mohammad M. Haque – Saudi Medical Journal
    1. The Immediate Antimicrobial Effect of a Toothbrush  and Miswak on Cariogenic Bacteria : A Clinical Study – K. Almas et al, J Contemp Dent Pract 5 (1)
    1. Subgingival Plaque microbiota in Saudi Arabians after use of Miswak chewing stick and tootbrush – Al – Otaibi M, Al-harthy M, Gustafsson A, Johansson A, Claesson R, Angmar-Mansson B.
    1. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens – Adnan Sukkarwalla, SalimaMehboob Ali, PraneeLunberg and FarzeenTanwir – Dental Research Journal
    1. Effectivness of Salvadorapersica extracts against common oral pathogens – HananBalto, Ibrahim Al-Sanie, Sultan Al-Beshri and Abdullah Aldrees.
    1. Periodontal treatment needs among Saudi Arabian adults and their relationship to the use of the Miswak – Al Khateeb, O’Mullane DM, Whelton H., Sulaiman MI.
    1. The Tooth – Brush tree (Salvadorapersica) – I.H. Farooqi and J.G. Srivastava
    1. Chewing sticks, toothpaste, and plaque removal – Bo Danielsen, VibekeBaelum, FirozeManji and Ole Fejerskov
    1. Significance of chewing-sticks (Miswaks) in oral hygiene from a pharmacological view-point – Muhammad Ajmal (Dept. of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
    1. Comparison of the severity of caries attack in permanent first molars in Iraqi and Sudanese schoolchildren – Baghdady VS, Ghose LJ.
    1. Chewing sticks versus toothbrushes in West Africa, a pilot study – Norton MR, Addy M.
    1. Meswak: The natural toothbrush – Hattab FN
    1. Oral Health profile of schoolchildren, mothers, and schoolteachers in Zanzibar – Petersen Poul Erik; Mzee, M.O.
    1. Effects of extracts of Miswak and derum on proliferation of Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts and viability of cariogenic bacteria
    1. Dental health of the Rendille and Samburu of the northern frontier district of Kenya – Carl W, Zambon JJ.
    1. SalvadoraPersica – M Khatak, S Khatak, A.A. Siddiqui, N. Nasudeva, A. Aggarwal and P. Aggarwal
    1. Significance of chewing sticks (Miswak) in oral hygiene from a pharmacological viewpoint. J. Pak. Med.Assoc. 1981; 4:89-95.11 Chawla HS. A new natural source for topical fluoride. J Indian Dent Assoc 1983;55:419-422.
    1. A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak (Salvadora Persica) on oral health – Mohammad M. Haque BDS, MPH, and Saeed A. Alsareii, Saudi Medical Journal

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